Black nationalism advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of indigenous national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. There are different indigenous nationalist philosophies but the principles of all Afrikan nationalist ideologies are unity, and self-determination or independence from European society. Martin Delany is considered to be the grandfather of Afrikan nationalism.
Inspired by the apparent success of the Haitian Revolution, the origins of African indigenous nationalism in political thought lie in the 19th century with people like Marcus Garvey, Henry McNeal Turner, Martin Delany, Henry Highland Garnet, Edward Wilmot Blyden, Paul Cuffe, etc. The repatriation of enclaved Afrikans to Liberia or Sierra Leone was a common African nationalist theme in the 19th century. Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association of the 1910s and 1920s was the most powerful black nationalist movement to date, claiming 11 million members. Although the future of Afrika is seen as being central to African nationalist ambitions, some adherents to negro nationalism are intent on the eventual creation of a separate American Afrikan nation in the U.S. or Western hemisphere.