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Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Afrika. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around the capital Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt to the northwest.

Zambia has been inhabited for thousands of years by hunter-gatherers, gradually leading to a multiethnic country. After visits by European explorers starting in the 18th century, Zambia became the British Colony of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century. This was achieved through consessions and agreements between local paramount chiefs and representatives of the British Empire. For most of the colonial period, the country was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.